The American Cocker Spaniel is the smallest member of the
Sporting Group. He has a sturdy, compact body and
a cleanly chiseled and refined head, with the overall
dog in complete balance and of ideal size. He stands
well up at the shoulder on straight forelegs with a
topline sloping slightly toward strong, moderately
bent, muscular quarters. He is a dog capable of
considerable speed, combined with great endurance.
Above all, he must be free and merry, sound, well
balanced throughout and in action show a keen
inclination to work. A dog well balanced in all parts is more desirable than a dog with
strongly contrasting good points and faults.
Size, Proportion, Substance
Size-- The ideal height at the withers for an adult dog is 15 inches and for an adult
bitch, 14 inches. Height may vary one-half inch above or below this ideal. A dog
whose height exceeds 15½ inches or a bitch whose height exceeds 14½ inches shall
be disqualified. An adult dog whose height is less than 14½ inches and an adult bitch
whose height is less than 13½ inches shall be penalized. Height is determined by a
line perpendicular to the ground from the top of the shoulder blades, the dog standing
naturally with its forelegs and lower hind legs parallel to the line of measurement.
Proportion--The measurement from the breast bone to back of thigh is slightly longer
than the measurement from the highest point of withers to the ground. The body must
be of sufficient length to permit a straight and free stride; the dog never appears long
To attain a well proportioned head, which must be in balance with the rest of the dog,
it embodies the following: Expression--The expression is intelligent, alert, soft and
appealing. Eyes--Eyeballs are round and full and look directly forward. The shape of
the eye rims gives a slightly almond shaped appearance; the eye is not weak or
goggled. The color of the iris is dark brown and in general the darker the better.
Ears--Lobular, long, of fine leather, well feathered, and placed no higher than a line to
the lower part of the eye. Skull--Rounded but not exaggerated with no tendency
toward flatness; the eyebrows are clearly defined with a pronounced stop. The bony
structure beneath the eyes is well chiseled with no prominence in the cheeks. The
muzzle is broad and deep, with square even jaws. To be in correct balance, the
distance from the stop to the tip of the nose is one half the distance from the stop up
over the crown to the base of the skull. Nose--of sufficient size to balance the muzzle
and foreface, with well developed nostrils typical of a sporting dog. It is black in color
in the blacks, black and tans, and black and whites; in other colors it may be brown,
liver or black, the darker the better. The color of nose harmonizes with the color of the
eye rim. Lips--The upper lip is full and of sufficient depth to cover the lower jaw.
Teeth--Teeth strong and sound, not too small and meet in a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--The neck is sufficiently long to allow the nose to reach the ground easily,
muscular and free from pendulous "throatiness." It rises strongly from the shoulders
and arches slightly as it tapers to join the head. Topline--sloping slightly toward
muscular quarters. Body--The chest is deep, its lowest point no higher than the
elbows, its front sufficiently wide for adequate heart and lung space, yet not so wide
as to interfere with the straightforward movement of the forelegs. Ribs are deep and
well sprung. Back is strong and sloping evenly and slightly downward from the
shoulders to the set-on of the docked tail. The docked tail is set on and carried on a
line with the topline of the back, or slightly higher; never straight up like a Terrier and
never so low as to indicate timidity. When the dog is in motion the tail action is merry.
The shoulders are well laid back forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately
90 degrees which permits the dog to move his forelegs in an easy manner with
forward reach. Shoulders are clean-cut and sloping without protrusion and so set that
the upper points of the withers are at an angle which permits a wide spring of rib.
When viewed from the side with the forelegs vertical, the elbow is directly below the
highest point of the shoulder blade. Forelegs are parallel, straight, strongly boned and
muscular and set close to the body well under the scapulae. The pasterns are short
and strong. Dewclaws on forelegs may be removed. Feet compact, large, round and
firm with horny pads; they turn neither in nor out.
Hips are wide and quarters well rounded and muscular. When viewed from behind, the
hind legs are parallel when in motion and at rest. The hind legs are strongly boned,
and muscled with moderate angulation at the stifle and powerful, clearly defined
thighs. The stifle is strong and there is no slippage of it in motion or when standing.
The hocks are strong and well let down. Dewclaws on hind legs may be removed.
On the head, short and fine; on the body, medium length, with enough undercoating to
give protection. The ears, chest, abdomen and legs are well feathered, but not so
excessively as to hide the Cocker Spaniel's true lines and movement or affect his
appearance and function as a moderately coated sporting dog. The texture is most
important. The coat is silky, flat or slightly wavy and of a texture which permits easy
care. Excessive coat or curly or cottony textured coat shall be severely penalized.
Use of electric clippers on the back coat is not desirable. Trimming to enhance the
dog's true lines should be done to appear as natural as possible.
Color and Markings
Black Variety--Solid color black to include black with tan points. The black should be
jet; shadings of brown or liver in the coat are not desirable. A small amount of white
on the chest and/or throat is allowed; white in any other location shall disqualify.
Any Solid Color Other than Black (ASCOB)--Any solid color other than black, ranging
from lightest cream to darkest red, including brown and brown with tan points. The
color shall be of a uniform shade, but lighter color of the feathering is permissible. A
small amount of white on the chest and/or throat is allowed; white in any other
location shall disqualify.
Parti-Color Variety--Two or more solid, well broken colors, one of which must be white;
black and white, red and white (the red may range from lightest cream to darkest red),
brown and white, and roans, to include any such color combination with tan points. It
is preferable that the tan markings be located in the same pattern as for the tan points
in the Black and ASCOB varieties. Roans are classified as parti-colors and may be of
any of the usual roaning patterns. Primary color which is ninety percent (90%) or
more shall disqualify.
Tan Points--The color of the tan may be from the lightest cream to the darkest red
and is restricted to ten percent (10%) or less of the color of the specimen; tan
markings in excess of that amount shall disqualify. In the case of tan points in the
Black or ASCOB variety, the markings shall be located as follows:
1) A clear tan spot over each eye;
2) On the sides of the muzzle and on the cheeks;
3) On the underside of the ears;
4) On all feet and/or legs;
5) Under the tail;
6) On the chest, optional; presence or absence shall not be penalized.
Tan markings which are not readily visible or which amount only to traces, shall be
penalized. Tan on the muzzle which extends upward, over and joins shall also be
penalized. The absence of tan markings in the Black or ASCOB variety in any of the
specified locations in any otherwise tan-pointed dog shall disqualify.
The Cocker Spaniel, though the smallest of the sporting dogs, possesses a typical
sporting dog gait. Prerequisite to good movement is balance between the front and
rear assemblies. He drives with strong, powerful rear quarters and is properly
constructed in the shoulders and forelegs so that he can reach forward without
constriction in a full stride to counterbalance the driving force from the rear. Above all,
his gait is coordinated, smooth and effortless. The dog must cover ground with his
action; excessive animation should not be mistaken for proper gait.
Equable in temperament with no suggestion of timidity.
Males over 15½ inches; females over 14½ inches.
Color and Markings--
The aforementioned colors are the only acceptable colors or
combination of colors.
Any other colors or combination of colors to disqualify.
White markings except on chest and throat.
Any Solid Color Other Than Black Variety--
White markings except on chest and
Primary color ninety percent (90%) or more.
(1) Tan markings in excess of ten percent (10%)
(2) Absence of tan
markings in Black or ASCOB Variety in any of the specified locations in an otherwise
tan pointed dog.